3-10 Since some contemporary Western dieticians believe that the only function of food is to provide nourishment,these dieticians view an emphasis on the aesthetic dimension of the culinary arts as _____.GRE考试
33-5 There are two opposing theories about mountain formation and climate over the past 40 million years:either the surge of mountain building(i)_____ the global cooling or vice versa.The first of these two theories asserts that widespread mountain building cooled the earth as a result of the(ii)_____ mountains and climate.For example,mountain glaciers tend to be(iii)_____:once established,they increase the reflectivity of the surface,thus lowering temperatures and allowing more ice to form.
19-2 There is _____ in the director’s most recent film that keeps the melodramatic possibilities latent in its script safely at bay.
31-5 Inuit print making is less(i)_____ than carving in that it does not have substantial historical precedents,although there are(ii)_____ incised carvings on bone or antler,facial tattoo marks or inlay skin work on clothing,mitts and footwear.Carving materials such as stone,bone,antler,wood,and ivory were(iii)_____,but paper and drawing tools were unknown until introduced by early explorers and missionaries.
47-1 The science community’s perennial lament over inadequate budgets has come to seem increasing _____,because government support for science and engineering has never been greater.
27-10 The concept of the Hellenistic period in ancient history has proved useful but also _____,with scholars disagreeing on the dates when the period began and ended.
37-3 Contrary to those who fear the impact of invasive species on native plants,the biologists contend that the threat posed to biodiversity by nonnative species is often(i)_____.For instance,a study of garlic mustard,a nonnative plant now thriving in Minnesota’s oak forests,found that garlic mustard abundance in forest plots was not(ii)_____ the number of other plant species there.
132-6 The general statement that all objects are(i)_____ by gravity(ii)_____ is not(iii)_____.In reality,if a feather and a lump of iron were dropped at the same time from the same place,we should not expect them to hit the floor at the same time.In order to reconcile the general statement with real-world phenomena,we must take into consideration all of the forces that act upon objects.
6-7 Since it was committed to the idea of science as an international,politically neutral enterprise,the Royal Society of London refused to _____ members from enemy nations during world wars of the twentieth century.
Exotic insect pests can produce both short-and long-term effects on forest ecosystems.Short-term effects include the disturbances directly associated with the action of the pest,which may cause the defoliation,loss of vigor,or death of trees.Long-term effects are primarily mediated by changes in tree species composition and the consequent alterations of forest structure,productivity,and nutrient uptake.Exotic pests are more efficient than most abiotic disturbances(e.g.,fire or wind)at producing long-term changes in species composition.Pests often target specific tree species and,if they become established,they usually remain as permanent components of the ecosystem.Shifts in forest species composition ramify through the ecosystem in many ways because tree species have different,often unique properties. GRE机经
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1.The passage mentions which of the following as effects of exotic pests on forest ecosystems?
A.decreased vitality in trees
B.defoliation of trees
C.changes in forest structure
2.The author of the passage mentions the“unique properties”of tree species primarily in order to help explain
A.why pests tend to target specific tree species
B.why pests can have long-term effects on entire ecosystems
C.how pests contribute to shifts in forest species composition
D.how pests are able to become established in an ecosystem
E.how some tree species are able to withstand the effects of pests
A plant-based automobile fuel has just become available in Ternland.A car can be driven as far on a gallon of the new plant-based fuel as a car can be driven on a gallon of gasoline,but a gallon of the plant-based fuel both costs less and results in less pollution.Therefore,drivers in Ternland who switch to it will reduce the amount they spend on fuel in a year while causing less environmental damage.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?
A.There is no expense associated with operating an automobile that is higher when the automobile uses the plant-based fuel than when it uses gasoline.
B.Automobiles that have been operated using the plant-based fuel can no longer be operated using regular gasoline.
C.The environmental damage attributable to automobiles is due almost entirely to the production and combustion of fuel automobiles use.
D.The advantages of the plant-based fuel over gasoline will not lead those who switch to the plant-based fuel to do more driving.
E.Most drivers in Ternland will switch from gasoline to the plant-based fuel.
Writing about nineteenth-century women’s travel writing,Lila Harper notes that the four women she discussed used their own names,in contrast with the nineteenth-century female novelists who either published anonymously or used male pseudonyms.The novelists doubtlessly realized that they were breaking boundaries,whereas three of the four daring,solitary travelers espoused traditional values,eschewing radicalism and women’s movements.Whereas the female novelists criticized their society,the female travelers seemed content to leave society as it was while accomplishing their own liberation.In other words,they lived a contradiction.For the subjects of Harper’s study,solitude in both the private and public spheres prevailed—a solitude that conferred authority,hitherto a male prerogative,but that also precluded any collective action or female solidarity.
1.Which of the following best characterizes the“contradiction”that the author refers to?
A.The subjects of Harper’s study enjoyed solitude,and yet as travelers they were often among people.
B.Nineteenth-century travel writers used their own names,but nineteenth-century novelists used pseudonyms.
C.Women’s movements in the nineteenth-century were not very radical in comparison with those of the twentieth-century.
D.Nineteenth-century female novelists thought they were breaking boundaries,but it was the nineteenth-century women who traveled alone who were really doing so.
E.While traveling alone in the nineteenth-century was considered a radical act for a woman,the nineteenth-century solitary female travelers generally held conventional views.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2.According to the passage,solitude had which of the following effects for the nineteenth century female travelers?
A.It conferred an authority typically enjoyed only by men.
B.It prevented formation of alliances with other women.
C.It relieved peer pressure to conform to traditional values.
Many theorists now doubt that heat loss from Earth’s core and radioactive decay are sufficient by themselves to produce all the energy driving the tectonic plates whose movements have helped shaped Earth’s surface.This leaves a loose end in current geological theory.Herbert Shaw argues that because scientists have underestimated the input of substantial amounts of energy from extraterrestrial impactors(asteroids and comets striking Earth),they have difficulty accounting for the difference between the quantity of energy produced from sources intrinsic to Earth and that involved in plate tectonics.Whereas most geologists have treated the addition of energy through the bombardment of Earth’s surface by such impactors as a process separate and independent from the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates,Shaw asserts that these processes are indivisible.Shaw’s revolutionary“open-system”view recognizes a continuum between terrestrial and extraterrestrial dynamics,whereas modern plate tectonic theory,like the classical geology developed during the nineteenth century,is founded on the view that Earth’s geological features have changed through gradual,regular processes intrinsic to Earth,without reference to unique catastrophic events.Classical geology borrowed a decisive,if unspoken,premise from Newton—the independence of Earth’s processes from any astronomical context.
1.The author’s primary purpose is to
A.identify the influences informing a particular geological theory about the processes that have shaped Earth’s surface
B.identify differences between two views of the extraterrestrial impactors and argue that the phenomenon has influenced the development of plate tectonic theory
C.argue that an explanation is based on a dubious evidence and propose an alternative explanation
D.discuss an explanation and place that explanation under theoretical context
E.suggest that apparent discrepancy poses a serious problem for a particular theory that many have believed
2.The author of the passage mentions the“continuum”in order to
A.point out a relationship between plate tectonics and the nineteenth-century geology
B.explain how a theory of Newton’s could influence geology and plate tectonic theory.
C.distinguish between two sources of energy that contributed to the development of Earth’s surface.
D.point out a similarity between the surface of impactors and the surface of Earth.
E.identify a feature of Shaw’s view that deviates from current scientific theories.
3.The passage suggests which of the following about tectonic theory?
A.It has led scientists to overlook an important contribution to classical geologists from Newton.
B.It has been more successful than was classical geology in accounting for heat loss from Earth’s core.
C.It is based on premise about Earth’s processes discerned in Newton’s thought.
D.It has correctly explained the effects of extraterrestrial impactors on Earth’s surface.
E.It corrects a fundamental flaw in classical geology.
The recently announced discovery of the first known planet orbiting a pulsar(the ultradense,pulsating remnant off the supernova explosion of a star)turned out to be based on faulty data.Had this discovery been confirmed,theorists would have had difficulty accounting for the existence of such a planet.The supernova would certainly have destroyed any preexisting planets.This particular pulsar is relatively young,allowing little time for a new planet to have coalesced,and it rotates relatively slowly,implying that it has not interacted with any nearby star since the supernova.But newer evidence of a different pulsar with planets is more promising.This is a rapidly spurring“millisecond pulsar”thought to be a much older object that has pulled gaseous material from a stellar neighbor,causing its rotational speed to increase.Leftover,unconsumed gas around such a pulsar could,in theory,coalesce into planets.Or the pulsar’s radiation might have vaporized a companion star,providing new material for planetary formation. GRE真题
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
A.provide an example of the dangers of a recent discovery based on faulty data.
B.illustrate the difficulty of explanation concerning a recent discovery
C.assess the credibility of recent findings concerning the as yet unverified existence of a class of objects.
D.argue that a certain hypothesis fails to account for a seemingly contradictory phenomenon
E.demonstrate how difficult it might be to find out the reality of a phenomenon
2.Which of the following best describe the organization of the passage?
A.Two sets of research findings relating to similar phenomenon are mentioned,and the theoretical implication of each are discussed.
B.A theoretical explanation of a phenomenon is presented and rejected,and a more attractive alternative is offered
C.Two independent and divergent interpretations of a set of observational data are compared and one is favored over the other
D.An example of careless scientific research is introduced and contrasted with a more rigorous analysis of the same material.
E.The state of knowledge of an unexplainable phenomenon is outlined and an approach to further investigation is recommended.
3.Which of the following can be inferred regarding the pulsar discussed in the first paragraph?
A.Theorists initially doubted its existence
B.If its existence had been confirmed,astronomers would and have turned their attention to the pulsar discussed in the second paragraph.
C.If the supernovas explosions that created it had been more powerful,the resulting radiation would have preceded the subsequent formation of a planet.
D.If it had interacted with a nearby star since the supernova explosion,it would rotate faster than it does.
E.Astronomers’interest in it ultimately led to a new theory of planetary formation.