10-4 While acknowledging behaviors the Prime Minster took in order to remain in office were(i)_____,some politicians nevertheless believed this small amount of(ii)_____ was justified to keep reforming government in office.
17-10 Well organized and researched and including all significant discoveries and medical scientists,this history of Western medicine has justly been called _____.
23-5 The(i)_____ quality of much contemporary drawing may be attributable to the use of photography as a drawing shortcut.Photography(ii)_____ modern arts,but when it is used as a tracing tool in order to(iii)_____ the difficulties of achieving correct proportion,the resulting art often feels static and lifeless.
38-7 It’s hardly _____ the committee calls for:rudimentary competence would be an improvement on the current chaos.
43-3 It can be(i)_____ to read Margaret Fuller’s travel writing,as she produced accounts of her travel that(ii)_____ conventions of bourgeois travel narrative,often capitulating to the most well-worn clichés of the genre at precisely the moments when she sought most energetically to cast them off in favor of some new,more passionate mode of discernment.
47-2 In modern times,friendship has become a _____ relationship:a form of connection in terms of which all are understood and against which all are measured.
61-6 Although Uruk in southern Mesopotamia has been(i)_____ as being both the first city and the model for later cones,at least two sites in northern Mesopotamia have yielded clear evidence of urbanization long before the existing evidence from Uruk,and other discoveries indicate that some of the(ii)_____ early urbanism were invented not in southern Mesopotamia but in the north.These findings have led some archaeologists to(iii)_____ a serious reconsideration about when and where the first cities arose.美国留学网
65-6 Industry-sponsored scientific research on chemical safety often(i)_____.Media reports regularly imply that industry support of scientific work is alone sufficient to(ii)_____ that research.Even though the source of funding has been determined to be a less significant cause of bias than other factors,industry support suffices,in the minds of many people,to(iii)_____ the credibility of scientific work.
73-4 There has been(i)_____ elephant’s fabled mental capacities until recently,when these behavioral observations have begun to be(ii)____ by brain science.MRI scans of an elephant’s brain suggest that even relative to its overall size it has a large hippocampus,the component in the mammalian brain linked to memory and an important part of its limbic system,which is involved in precessing emotions.
82-4 Some academic criticism of popular novels has been(i)_____ in character,being based on the assumption that the wider the appeal,the more(ii)_____ the novel.
86-7 Although the employees’union and company management,entering into contract negotiations,both issued statements encouraging _____,acrimony between the two sides continued unabated.
93-3 Far from(i)_____ the actions taken by the newspaper’s executives,William praised the executive’s resistance to corruption—yet he doubted that their policies were practical enough to warrant(ii)_____ by other papers.
113-4 The so-called“good”translations of the historian’s major work—those that are(i)_____,in other words—give a very bad idea of the linguistic character of the author’s original writing,which is notoriously(ii)_____.
147-5 The tape recorder is to blame for the(i)_____ of the interview and has thus had a(ii)_____ effect on journalism.The possibility of verbatim reproduction has fostered the illusion that the voice of truth is that of the interviewee rather than the more critically detached voice belonging to the journalist.Maybe journalists should return to the lowly notebook,which allows them to(iii)_____ while listening,relegating the tape recorder to its real role of invaluable witness.
The history of the transmission of ancient Roman texts prior to invention of the printing press is reconstructed from evidence both internal and external to the texts themselves.Internal evidence is used to reconstruct the relationship of the surviving manuscripts of a Roman text to one another,as represented in a modern stemma codicum:a diagram depicting the genealogical relationship of surviving manuscripts and those the stemmas editor believes existed at one time.Stemma are scholar’s only road maps to textual connections based on internal evidence,but they may paint a distorted picture of reality because they diagram the relationships of only those manuscripts known or inferred today.If surviving copies are few,the stemma perforce brings into proximity manuscripts that were widely separated in time and place of origin.Conversely,the stemma can also bestow a semblance of separation on manuscripts written within a few months of one another or even in the same room.美国留学GRE
One type of external evidence that may shed light on the transmission of Roman texts is the availability of a work in the Middle Ages,when many classical texts were circulated.Too often,though,too much is inferred about a particular works circulation in the Middle Ages from the number of manuscripts surviving today.When a work survives in a single manuscript copy,editors call the manuscript,rather glamorously,the lone survivor–implying that all its(presumably rare)companions were destroyed sometime early in the Middle Ages by pillaging barbarians.It is equally possible that the work survived far into the Middle Ages in numerous copies in monastic libraries but were unnoticed due to lack of interest.The number of extant manuscripts,however few,really does not allow scholars to infer how many ancient Latin manuscripts of a work survived to the ninth,the twelfth,or even the fifteenth century.
Quotations from a Roman text by a medieval author are another category of external evidence:but does the appearance of a rare word or grammatical construction—or even a short passage—really indicate a medieval author’s firsthand knowledge of this or that ancient work,or does such usage instead derive from some intermediate source,such as a grammar book or a popular style manual?Medieval authors do quote extensively from ancient authors;while such quotations provide some evidence of the works medieval circulation,as well as define its evolving fortunes and the various uses to which it was put,they may be far less useful in reconstructing the text of an ancient work.
Much as scholars want to look for overall patterns and formulate useful generalizations,the transmission of each text is a different story and each manuscripts history is unique.Scholars must be careful not to draw conclusions that go beyond what the evidence can support.
1.The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?
A.tracing certain changes in the methods used to study the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
B.contrasting two types of evidence used in investigating the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
C.outlining certain difficulties associated with studying the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
D.advocating the use of one type of evidence about ancient Roman texts over the use of another type.
E.explaining the development and potential uses and drawbacks of stemma in the study of ancient Roman texts.
2.As described in the passage,a stemma is most closely analogous to which of the following?
A.a department store inventory list that excludes some departments
B.a map from which a large section has been torn off
C.a chronology that includes only major historical events
D.a family tree in which some generations are not recorded
E.a government organizational chart from which some agencies are omitted
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
3.In its discussion of external evidence,the passage suggests which of the following about manuscripts of ancient Roman texts during the Middle Ages?
A.It is possible that fewer manuscripts were destroyed by barbarians in the early Middle Ages than scholars frequently suppose.
B.Additional copies of some so-called lone survivor manuscripts may have existed well into the Middle Ages.
C.If an ancient Roman text is quoted in a work by a medieval author,then it is likely that at least one manuscript copy of that text survived into the Middle Ages.
4.Click on the sentence in the first paragraph that suggests that scholars might be led to underestimate the extent of the connection between certain manuscripts.
Archaeologists studying Bonito phase(ca.A.D.900-1140)Native American ceramics from Chaco Canyon,New Mexico,observed that many pots had been altered after firing to revise their decorative designs--usually,intricate geometric patterns painted in black on white slipped surfaces.In some cases,a new design was imposed over an earlier one;less often,the original design was simply covered with white slip.Crown and Wills doubt that the alterations were made to correct design errors.Many Chaco pots with design errors were left unaltered.Furthermore,when errors were corrected,revisions were made prior to firing—either by painting directly over the error or by scraping off designs and applying new slip and paint,which is a less time-consuming method than repainting and refiring flawed pots.美国GRE考试
1.The author of the passage mentions Crown and Wills primarily in order to
A.Distinguish among different factors that might have caused Chaco potters to alter their pots’decorative designs.
B.Introduce new evidence related to the question of why Chaco potters altered their pots’decorative designs.
C.Show how one potential explanation for the alteration of Chaco pots has been discounted.
D.Present a hypothesis about why Chaco pots were altered to revise their decorative designs.
E.Explain how archaeologists discerned the method by which Chaco pots were originally decorated.
2.According to the passage,which of the following is true of Bonito phase Chaco pots?
A.Relatively few of them have original designs concealed beneath white surfaces.
B.Relatively few of them were altered after firing.
C.Many of their alterations increased the intricacy of their painted designs.
D.Many of them have some flaw in their shape or structure.
E.Many of them were altered more than once.
In Stanton the average number of people injured per automobile accident is consistently higher for accidents involving a taxicab than for those not involving a taxicab.Although all Stanton taxicabs are equipped with passenger seat belts,taxicab drivers report that passengers tend not to use them.It is likely,therefore,that if taxicab passengers were required to use seat belts,the number of people injured per accident would soon be no higher for taxicabs than for other automobiles.
Which of the following,if true about Stanton,most seriously weakens the argument?
A.The number of automobile accidents has been declining in recent years.
B.Since taxicabs are driven more miles annually than most other vehicles,they are more likely to be in an accident during any given year than is the average vehicle.
C.There are more taxicabs in operation,relative to the overall number of motor vehicles,than there are in most cities of Stanton’s size.
D.The number of people,including the driver,who occupy a vehicle is generally greater for taxicabs than for other vehicles.
E.Not all passengers in automobiles other than taxicabs use seat belts.